Firefox and Color Management

For some time now Firefox has been capable of doing some level of color management of web content. Though there have always been caveats. Currently Firefox (version 26) enables color management only for images that have explicitly been tagged with a color profile (which isn’t that common yet). This default behavior results in a number of problems.

When an image is tagged with a color profile Firefox converts that image to your display profile (if configured), or otherwise to sRGB. Untagged images and other color elements defined by CSS for example, are assumed to be sRGB and are not converted to your display profile (if configured), even though they should. This means if you do not have a display profile configured, everything is well, since everything is either sRGB or is converted to sRGB. However if you do have a display profile configured, particularly if your display significantly deviates from sRGB, you might notice page elements which are composited from multiple sources (tagged images and CSS for example) having mismatching colors. This is essentially a bug, all page elements should always be converted to the same colorspace (whether that be sRGB or the display profile).

Firefox versions predating 19 required the user to manually configure a specific display profile, but since version 19 Firefox should automatically pick up on a system display profile if properly configured.

So to get Firefox to do complete color management, you’ll need to set a few parameters using about:config, or you can do the following on Ubuntu to enable it system wide:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "pref(\"gfx.color_management.rendering_intent\", 0);" >> /etc/firefox/syspref.js'
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "pref(\"gfx.color_management.mode\", 1);" >> /etc/firefox/syspref.js'
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "pref(\"gfx.color_management.enablev4\", true);" >> /etc/firefox/syspref.js'

IMPORTANT: You do need to be aware that enabling these features means slightly increasing Firefox’s security surface.

Display Color Profiling (on Linux)

Attention: This article is a work in progress, based on my own practical experience up until the time of writing, so you may want to check back periodically to see if it has been updated.

This article outlines how you can calibrate and profile your display on Linux, assuming you have the right equipment (either a colorimeter like for example the i1 Display Pro or a spectrophotometer like for example the ColorMunki Photo). For a general overview of what color management is and details about some of it’s parlance you may want to read this before continuing.

A Fresh Start

First you may want to check if any kind of color management is already active on your machine, if you see the following then you’re fine:

$ xprop -display :0.0 -len 14 -root _ICC_PROFILE
_ICC_PROFILE:  no such atom on any window.

However if you see something like this, then there is already another color management system active:

$ xprop -display :0.0 -len 14 -root _ICC_PROFILE
_ICC_PROFILE(CARDINAL) = 0, 0, 72, 212, 108, 99, 109, 115, 2, 32, 0, 0, 109, 110

If this is the case you need to figure out what and why… For GNOME/Unity based desktops this is fairly typical, since they extract a simple profile from the display hardware itself via EDID and use that by default. I’m guessing KDE users may want to look into this before proceeding. I can’t give much advice about other desktop environments though, as I’m not particularly familiar with them. That said, I tested most of the examples in this article with XFCE 4.10 on Xubuntu 14.04 “Trusty”.

Display Types

Modern flat panel displays are comprised of two major components for purposes of our discussion, the backlight and the panel itself. There are various types of backlights, White LED (most common nowadays), CCFL (most common a few years ago), RGB LED and Wide Gamut CCFL, the latter two of which you’d typically find on higher end displays. The backlight primarily defines a displays gamut and maximum brightness. The panel on the other hand primarily defines the maximum contrast and acceptable viewing angles. Most common types are variants of IPS (usually good contrast and viewing angles) and TN (typically mediocre contrast and poor viewing angles).

Display Setup

There are two main cases, there a laptop displays, which usually allow for little configuration, and regular desktop displays. For regular displays there are a few steps to prepare your display to be profiled, first you need to reset your display to it’s factory defaults. We leave the contrast at it’s default value. If your display has a feature called dynamic contrast you need to disable it, this is critical, if you’re unlucky enough to have a display for which this cannot be disabled, then there is no use in proceeding any further. Then we set the color temperature setting to custom and set the R/G/B values to equal values (often 100/100/100 or 255/255/255). As for the brightness, set it to a level which is comfortable for prolonged viewing, typically this means reducing the brightness from it’s default setting, this will often be somewhere around 25-50 on a 0-100 scale. Laptops are a different story, often you’ll be fighting different lighting conditions, so you may want to consider profiling your laptop at it’s full brightness. We’ll get back to the brightness setting later on.

Before continuing any further, let the display settle for at least half an hour (as it’s color rendition may change while the backlight is warming up) and make sure the display doesn’t go into power saving mode during this time.

Another point worth considering is cleaning the display before starting the calibration and profiling process, do keep in mind that displays often have relatively fragile coatings, which may be deteriorated by traditional cleaning products, or easily scratched using regular cleaning cloths. There are specialist products available for safely cleaning computer displays.

You may also want to consider dimming the ambient lighting while running the calibration and profiling procedure to prevent (potential) glare from being an issue.


If you’re in a GNOME or Unity environment it’s highly recommend to use GNOME Color Manager (with colord and argyll). If you have recent versions (3.8.3, 1.0.5, 1.6.2 respectively), you can profile and setup your display completely graphically via the Color applet in System Settings. It’s fully wizard driven and couldn’t be much easier in most cases. This is what I personally use and recommend. The rest of this article focuses on the case where you are not using it.

Xubuntu users in particular can get experimental packages for the latest argyll and optionally xiccd from my xiccd-testing PPAs. If you’re using a different distribution you’ll need to source help from it’s respective community.

Report On The Uncalibrated Display

To get an idea of the displays uncalibrated capabilities we use argyll’s dispcal:

$ dispcal -H -y l -R
Uncalibrated response:
Black level = 0.4179 cd/m^2
50%   level = 42.93 cd/m^2
White level = 189.08 cd/m^2
Aprox. gamma = 2.14
Contrast ratio = 452:1
White     Visual Daylight Temperature = 7465K, DE 2K to locus =  3.2

Here we see the display has a fairly high uncalibrated native whitepoint at almost 7500K, which means the display is bluer than it should be. When we’re done you’ll notice the display becoming more yellow. If your displays uncalibrated native whitepoint is below 6500K you’ll notice it becoming more blue when loading the profile.

Another point to note is the fairly high white level (brightness) of almost 190 cd/m2, it’s fairly typical to target 120 cd/m2 for the final calibration, keeping in mind that we’ll lose 10 cd/m2 or so because of the calibration itself. So if your display reports a brightness significantly higher than 130 cd/m2 you may want to considering turning down the brightness another notch.

Calibrating And Profiling Your Display

First we’ll use argyll’s dispcal to measure and adjust (calibrate) the display, compensating for the displays whitepoint (targeting 6500K) and gamma (targeting industry standard 2.2, more info on gamma here):

$ dispcal -v -m -H -y l -q l -t 6500 -g 2.2 asus_eee_pc_1215p

Next we’ll use argyll’s targen to generate measurement patches to determine it’s gamut:

$ targen -v -d 3 -G -f 128 asus_eee_pc_1215p

Then we’ll use argyll’s dispread to apply the calibration file generated by dispcal, and measure (profile) the displays gamut using the patches generated by targen:

$ dispread -v -N -H -y l -k asus_eee_pc_1215p

Finally we’ll use argyll’s colprof to generate a standardized ICC (version 2) color profile:

$ colprof -v -D "Asus Eee PC 1215P" -C "Copyright 2013 Pascal de Bruijn" \
          -q m -a G -n c asus_eee_pc_1215p
Profile check complete, peak err = 9.771535, avg err = 3.383640, RMS = 4.094142

The parameters used to generate the ICC color profile are fairly conservative and should be fairly robust. They will likely provide good results for most use-cases. If you’re after better accuracy you may want to try replacing -a G with -a S or even -a s, but I very strongly recommend starting out using -a G.

You can inspect the contents of a standardized ICC (version 2 only) color profile using argyll’s iccdump:

$ iccdump -v 3 asus_eee_pc_1215p.icc

To try the color profile we just generated we can quickly load it using argyll’s dispwin:

$ dispwin -I asus_eee_pc_1215p.icc

Now you’ll likely see a color shift toward the yellow side. For some possibly aged displays you may notice it shifting toward the blue side.

If you’ve used a colorimeter (as opposed to a spectrophotometer) to profile your display and if you feel the profile might be off, you may want to consider reading this and this.

Report On The Calibrated Display

Next we can use argyll’s dispcal again to check our newly calibrated display:

$ dispcal -H -y l -r
Current calibration response:
Black level = 0.3432 cd/m^2
50%   level = 40.44 cd/m^2
White level = 179.63 cd/m^2
Aprox. gamma = 2.15
Contrast ratio = 523:1
White     Visual Daylight Temperature = 6420K, DE 2K to locus =  1.9

Here we see the calibrated displays whitepoint nicely around 6500K as it should be.

Loading The Profile In Your User Session

If your desktop environment is XDG autostart compliant, you may want to considering creating a .desktop file which will load the ICC color profile during all users session login:

$ cat /etc/xdg/autostart/dispwin.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Argyll dispwin load color profile
Exec=dispwin -I /usr/share/color/icc/asus_eee_pc_1215p.icc

Alternatively you could use colord and xiccd for a more sophisticated setup. If you do make sure you have recent versions of both, particularly for xiccd as it’s still a fairly young project.

First we’ll need to start xiccd (in the background), which detects your connected displays and adds it to colord‘s device inventory:

$ nohup xiccd &

Then we can query colord for it’s list of available devices:

$ colormgr get-devices

Next we need to query colord for it’s list of available profiles (or alternatively search by a profile’s full filename):

$ colormgr get-profiles
$ colormgr find-profile-by-filename /usr/share/color/icc/asus_eee_pc_1215p.icc

Next we’ll need to assign our profile’s object path to our display’s object path:

$ colormgr device-add-profile \
           /org/freedesktop/ColorManager/devices/xrandr_HSD121PHW1_70842_pmjdebruijn_1000 \

You should notice your displays color shift within a second or so (xiccd applies it asynchronously), assuming you haven’t already applied it via dispwin earlier (in which case you’ll notice no change).

If you suspect xiccd isn’t properly working, you may be able to debug the issue by stopping all xiccd background processes, and starting it in debug mode in the foreground:

$ killall xiccd
$ G_MESSAGES_DEBUG=all xiccd

Also in xiccd‘s case you’ll need to create a .desktop file to load xiccd during all users session login:

$ cat /etc/xdg/autostart/xiccd.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
GenericName=X11 ICC Daemon
Comment=Applies color management profiles to your session

You’ll note that xiccd does not need any parameters, since it will query colord‘s database what profile to load.

If your desktop environment is not XDG autostart compliant, you need to ask them how to start custom commands (dispwin or xiccd respectively) during session login.

Dual Screen Caveats

Currently having a dual screen color managed setup is complicated at best. Most programs use the _ICC_PROFILE atom to get the system display profile, and there’s only one such atom. To resolve this issue new atoms were defined to support multiple displays, but not all applications actually honor them. So with a dual screen setup there is always a risk of applications applying the profile for your first display to your second display or vice versa.

So practically speaking, if you need a reliable color managed setup, you should probably avoid dual screen setups altogether.

That said, most of argyll’s commands support a -d parameter for selecting which display to work with during calibration and profiling, but I have no personal experience with them whatsoever, since I purposefully don’t have a dual screen setup.

Application Support Caveats

As my other article explains display color profiles consist of two parts, one part (whitepoint & gamma correction) is applied via X11 and thus benefits all applications. There is however a second part (gamut correction) that needs to be applied by the application. And application support for both input and display color management vary wildly. Many consumer grade applications have no color management awareness whatsoever.

Firefox can do color management and it’s half-enabled by default, read this to properly configure Firefox.

GIMP for example has display color management disabled by default, you need to enable it via it’s preferences.

Eye of GNOME has display color management enabled by default, but it has nasty corner case behaviors, for example when a file has no metadata no color management is done at all (instead of assuming sRGB input). Some of these issues seem to have been resolved on Ubuntu Trusty (LP #272584).

Darktable has display color management enabled by default and is one of the few applications which directly support colord and the display specific atoms as well as the generic _ICC_PROFILE atom as fallback. There are however a few caveats for darktable as well, documented here.

Display profiles generated from EDID

If you’re running a GNOME or Unity desktop (and probably recent versions of KDE too), you may notice differences in color rendition between different applications. The difference you’re seeing is between applications that apply the system configured display profile and those that don’t. For example Eye of GNOME and Darktable do this by default, GIMP for example doesn’t…

Now, as many people have noticed most displays render color quite differently, and display profiles are a technical means to correct that to some degree. There are several means for obtaining a display profile, one is to buy a measurement device (called a colorimeter) and actually measure your particular display. Some vendors supply a display profile ICC file on a CD that came with the display. And lastly more recent displays apparently provide information which can be used to generate a display profile via EDID (which is a protocol for information exchange via VGA/DVI/HDMI). The respective methods have been listed in order of decreasing accuracy. For a bit more in-depth information you might want to consider reading this.

At least since distributions have been shipping colord and GNOME Color Manager (so I’m guessing since Oneiric for Ubuntu users), colord actually queries your display via the EDID protocol, to extract the required information to generate an automatic display profile, which allow certain applications to correct for the displays behavior.

We Need You

Now, recently we’ve begun to have the impression that some vendors may be shipping bogus information in their displays (possibly under the assumption that it would not be the used anyhow). But currently we have no information to substantiate this.

Please read this and this first before continuing.

I’d like to ask you, to submit your EDID generated profile to the gnome-color-manager-list (you can post to the list without subscribing, your submission will be moderated and thus will take a few days to turn up) including the following:

  • Subject: [EDID] Display Make + Model
  • Attach ~/.local/share/icc/edid-*.icc
  • Display Make (if it’s a laptop, then the laptop make)
  • Display Model (if it’s a laptop, then the laptop model)
  • The Displays Age (approx. how long ago did you buy it)
  • Duty Cycle (light usage on average a few hours a day, heavy usage approx. 8 or more hours a day).
  • The output of  xprop -display :0.0 -len 14 -root _ICC_PROFILE
  • Subjective Impression (download this SmugMug calibration image, and load it into GIMP, then go the GIMP’s Preferences, to go Color Management, and then check/uncheck Try to use system monitor profile while keeping an eye on the image, tell us what looks most realistic to you (checked/unchecked) and why…

After more than 2000 submissions colord-0.1.34 was released which should detect and disable cases where the displays are supplying bogus information via EDID. Based on the current statistics it seems 4% (or thereabouts) of the displays supply bad information.

Working around bad EDID

Assuming some vendors actually provide bad information via EDID, you might need a way to disable this automatically generated profile. In older versions of GNOME Color Manager (3.6 and earlier) there wasn’t an easy way to disable this. There is however a feasible workaround. Install argyll on your system. Then assign /usr/share/color/argyll/ref/sRGB.icm to your display. (Go to the GNOME System Settings, Choose the Color applet, Choose your display, click Add Profile, select Other Profile, and then select Argyll’s sRGB.icm).

ColorHug red shift workaround

As most of you probably know already, there is a cool (and affordable) little colorimeter available now called the ColorHug, and it’s open-source too (including all companion software).

As the ColorHug’s firmware is still being improved, some people have noticed a profile created with the ColorHug makes their display shift excessively to the red, possibly due to a slight measurement inaccuracy.

A display profile generally consist of two main parts, first there is the vcgt (sometimes also called VideoLUT), which is loaded and applied by X11 itself. This is usually a correction for a displays white point (which is where it goes wrong). And the second part is gamma+matrix (which is gamma/hue/saturation correction). So to avoid the red shift we have to skip the first part of profile creation.

To prepare I recommend you (try to) do the following (for this particular procedure):

  1. Note down your display old settings (if you care to go back to these).
  2. Reset your display’s settings to factory defaults.
  3. Adjust the display’s brightness to a comfortable level (you really often don’t need maximum brightness).
  4. Generally it’s a good idea to leave contrast at the manufacturers default.
  5. Change the displays color temperature to 6500K if possible (You might notice your display shift a bit to the yellow).

Then execute the following commands in a Terminal

# targen -v -d 3 -G -f 64 make_model
# ENABLE_COLORHUG=1 dispread -v -y l make_model
# colprof -v -A "Make" -M "Model" -D "Make Model" \
          -C "Copyright (c) 2012 John Doe. Some rights reserved." \
          -q l -a G make_model

The above commands skip vcgt creation with dispcal and do a fairly simple set of measurements and create a fairly simple ICC profile. This simplicity gets us increased robustness in the profile’s creation at the expense of potential accuracy. To be honest I wouldn’t be surprised if commercial vendors use a similar strategy in their entry-level colorimetry products for the consumer market.

You’ll need to either manually import the resulting profile into GNOME Color Manager (to setup the profile at login), or directly configure it in programs like the GIMP. You can load an image like this in GIMP to check if the resulting profile makes sense. Please do mind GIMP has color management disabled by default, so you need to set it up in the Preferences.

Even with the above method, the resulting profile may still be a bit off in the reds (though it will only be visible in color managed applications). If this is still an issue for you, you could try the Community Average CCMX, or possibly my Dell U2212HM CCMX, for which I’ve gotten decent results on non-Dell displays too.

Color Management (On Linux)

There seems to be a lot of confusion about what color management is, what it is supposed to do, and most particularly how to use it on Linux. While most information below is generically applicable, in cases where I have to be specific I’ll focus on Ubuntu/GNOME/Unity.

The first thing to get out of the way is the simply question what color manament is supposed to do for you. Color management is used to get consistent and reliable results from device to device to device. So if I take an image with my color managed camera, and display it on my color managed display and print it with my color managed printer it should look nearly the same everywhere. This means it doesn’t per-se make your image look better (whatever that may mean for you). Also what color management can’t do for you is make crappy equipment better than it is. Any color management solution always has to work within the bounds of the equipment it is managing. Of course any color management solution tries to compensate for a device’s limits as best it can, but there are inherent limits. When these limits are hit, colors aren’t accurately reproduced anymore.

Now we need to get some terminology straight. Calibration is modifying a device’s characteristics to match a specification (for example changing brightness of a display). Characterization is recording the devices behavior for correction in software. These terms are often incorrectly used interchangeably (even by me, excuse me when I do). The end result of characterization is a (standard) ICC color profile.

While pretty much any device can be color managed , I’ll focus on displays for the rest of this article.

Now to color manage a display you need a device that can “read” (characterize) your displays characteristics. To characterize your display there are two types of devices you can use: colorimeters and spectrophotometers. Colorimeters are the most common device to characterize displays, as they are fairly affordable (100-200 EUR range). Colorimeters do have their limits, they are in essence just a very special purpose digital camera with only a handful of pixels. While I personally never had any issues, I’ve read about older colorimeters having trouble with new kinds of display technology like LED backlit displays, and some entry level colorimeters may not work as well with professional wide gamut displays (more on that later). The other option is a spectrophotometer, these devices are rather pricy, entry level spectrophotometers like the ColorMunki Photo, are priced slightly below 400EUR (if you see any device priced significantly lower, it’s likely that the device is not a true spectrophotometer). Spectrophotometers actually read a full spectrum of the light they receive, which means it produces a lot more detailed information. This means spectrophotometers are unlikely to be fooled by new technologies. Most spectrophotometers also include a reference light source, which means they can illuminate (for example) paper, so they can be used to profile printers (combined with ink & paper) as well.

So now we’ll need to explain some more concepts. So first I’ll tell you how silly talking about (for example) RGB 245/0/0 really is. Imagine owning a car, and you’re stuck with an empty tank. So using your last few drop of petrol you go to a petrol station. Say you live in Europe, and you say to the attendant, I’ll have 40, so the attendant fills up your car with 40 Liters of petrol. If someone living in the US says the same thing to an attendant at a US petrol station, they’ll get 40 Gallons of petrol. So, you’d say, well I did tell you properly, it’s RGB… But RGB really doesn’t mean anything at all. Since RGB just tells you, you are defining colors in three components: red, blue and green. It doesn’t say anything about what the reddest red is, the greenest green is and let not forgot about the bluest blue. To define this, the concept of colorspaces was created, a colorspace defines the range of colors a device can reproduce, this is also called a device’s gamut. RGB colorspaces are defined in CIE XYZ colorspace. They do this, because XYZ colorspace encompasses all colors the average human eye can see. All RGB colorspaces are a defined as a subset of XYZ colorspace. More importantly in the late nineties two of the most important colorspaces were defined: sRGB (by Microsoft and HP), and AdobeRGB (by, erhm… well… Adobe). sRGB was more or less defined as the average common denominator of most affordable displays. These days anything not explicitly defined a in different colorspace is assumed to be in sRGB. On the other hand, AdobeRGB was defined to encompass much more colors, with it’s main goal of covering most colors professional printing solutions could cover.

Next to defining RGB to be in a colorspace, there is still the issue that the human eye does not experience light in a linear fashion, so we need gamma encoding to make images not look like a murky mess. These days gamma 2.2 is universally accepted as a standard for displays. There are some caveats though. I own a cheap netbook, and it’s display for example seems to have a native display gamma of about 1.8, which means it lacks contrast.

And then there is the issue of whitepoints, since there is no such thing a “just” white. For most purposes, a white point of 6500K (this is at least true for both sRGB and AdobeRGB) is good as a standard neutral white. Higher temperatures in Kelvin make a display look blue (common with laptop displays), and lower temperatures in Kelvin more a display look more yellow.

And last there is the question of luminance, which is a snazzy term for brightness. If your work isn’t color critical, just put your display to a comfortable level (usually not too bright), if your work is color critical, it’s common to calibrate your display to 120cd/m2.

That said, there are some common issues to address. As I said the result of characterization is an ICC profile. ICC profiles usually have the file extension of .icc or on Windows .icm. Depending on the software which generated the profile, profiles can either be version 2 or version 4. And at least on Linux (but also true for older proprietary software), many programs may not properly apply version 4 profiles, so it’s best to stick with version 2 profiles for the time being. Luckily ArgyllCMS, the premier open profiling suite generates version 2 profiles by default.

Also, you need to be aware that most web browers aren’t color management aware (Safari & Firefox are the exception when properly configured). The W3C specified that “the web” should be in sRGB. This basically means that you should only upload sRGB images to websites, if you upload images that are not sRGB, they may not look as intended to your potential viewers (depending on which browser they use). The common problem is that people upload AdobeRGB images to the web, and they get complaints that the images look desaturated (since the web browser is assuming them to be sRGB, even though they are not).

Now back to display profiling, there are several ways to accomplish this on Linux. I’ve talked in the past about manually doing this with ArgyllCMS, which is a suite of commandline tools. There are however some front-ends available. The two most important ones are dispcalGUI and GNOME Color Manager. Both tools have their own target audience, dispcalGUI caters to advanced users who really know color management inside out. While GNOME Color Manager caters to entry level users, and tries to make everything as easy as possible. To be blunt, if everything in this article isn’t really obvious to you, your best bet is probably GNOME Color Manager. GNOME Color Manager generally provides sane defaults, and guides you through the process using a Wizard *cough* Druid (or whats-it-called?)…

Next some information on the general anatomy of display profiles. Display profiles in particular have three important components. There is the VCGT, the TRCs and the XYZ matrix. The first bit, the VCGT, also often called the VideoLUT, is a lookup table which is designed to correct your display’s whitepoint and potential aberrations between the R, G and B channels. The VCGT is loaded into your X11 driver, and only works if your driver is in 24 bit mode. When the VCGT is being loaded into X11 (usually in the login manager or just after logging in) you should see the colors of the display shift a bit. The VCGT is the only bit of the profile which is beneficial to all applications (as it’s applied by X11), the other two parts have to be actively applied by the application (if properly configured, more on that later). So next we have the TRCs which basically models your display’s gamma curve. And last the XYZ matrix determines what maximum red, blue and green are for your particular display. It’s possible to have an XYZLUT instead to get more detailed correction, however I’d never recommend this, as not all applications properly apply an XYZLUT.

Since the last two parts (TRC+XYZ) need to be applied by your color management aware applications, they need to be properly configured. To make this easier there is something called the XICC specification, which allows an “active” profile to loaded into X11 as well, this is very rudimentary though, as it just means the file is being loaded into the _ICC_PROFILE atom (which is basically like an environmental variable), so it can be easily picked up by color management aware applications. Applications most commonly use the LittleCMS library on Linux to apply the TRCs and the XYZ matrix.

GNOME Color Manager (via GNOME Settings Daemon) makes sure that a profile’s VCGT gets loaded into the X11 display driver, as well as setting the _ICC_PROFILE atom. You can check if the _ICC_PROFILE atom has been properly set using xprop:

# xprop -display :0.0 -len 14 -root _ICC_PROFILE

It’s known that proprietary (nVidia/ATi) drivers can cause problems, also dual head setups can complicate things.

Now, some applications do color management by default (assuming the _ICC_PROFILE atom has been properly set), this for example includes Eye of GNOME and Darktable. Other applications seem to ignore the _ICC_PROFILE atom by default, like Firefox and GIMP.

To check if a profile is being applied, you need to good test image to evaluate, I can highly recommend SmugMug’s Calibration Print for this. In GIMP’s particular case, load this image into GIMP, and go to Edit and Preferences. Go to the Color Management section. Then check the “Try to use the system monitor profile” box while looking at the image,  in most cases you should see a change (if not use xprop to check the _ICC_PROFILE atom), and more importantly you should be able to distinguish the top gray patches from each other.

Last there is the issue of images that were adjusted on uncalibrated displays, which is true for probably 99% of all images on the web. If the author had a low contrast unmanaged display, it’s likely he might have increased contrast in a particular image. When you take a look at that image on your color managed display (with proper contrast), it may look too contrasty. And on the flipside, if the author had a high contrast unmanaged display, it’s likely he might have decreased contrast in a particular image. When you take a look at that image on your color managed display (with proper contrast), it may look devoid of contrast. So it’s not weird to have discrepancies between managed and unmanaged setups.

With the above text I hope to have shed some light on color management in general and some of the particular issues regarding it’s use on Linux.

My Notebook Display Is Too Bluish

I’ve been posting a fair amount of photography, imaging and color management lately. While colorimetry can be a good solution to display issues, but a lot of people don’t want to take it that far.

So say you’ve just gotten a new notebook, and like many notebooks the display looks a tad blueish, and you don’t want to invest in a full blown color management solution. There is a fairly simple way to address this issue at least to an extent, and it’s called xgamma (please note that xgamma might not work if your X11 setup is in 16bit mode, which is very unlikely on a modern system).

Now before making any changes it’s a good idea to get a good image to evaluate any changes with. I can highly recommend the Smugmug Calibration Print. So open the calibration print in your favorite image viewer, and do:

# xgamma -rgamma 1.0 -ggamma 1.0 -bgamma 0.9

You should see your display shift in color. Lots of notebook display also tend to lack contrast, so in theory you can use xgamma to compensate for that too:

# xgamma -rgamma 0.9 -ggamma 0.9 -bgamma 0.8

Again check the calibration print again, make sure you can clearly distinguish all the grey patches at the top of the image.

Now when you reboot your machine these settings will be lost. The best way I’ve found to automatically apply these settings seem to be via what’s called XDG Autostart, it’s basically a set of .desktop files that are run during session startup. Most big desktop environments (GNOME/XFCE/KDE) support these.

So, put the following into /etc/xdg/autostart/xgamma.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Set display gamma corrections
GenericName=Set display gamma corrections
Comment=Applies display gamma corrections at session startup
Exec=xgamma -rgamma 0.9 -ggamma 0.9 -bgamma 0.8

Now reboot, and see your gamma settings being applied at during each new X11 login.

Please beware that the above correction are ballpark corrections, for real accuracy you really need to do proper color management.